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Neuron. 2016 Jan 20;89(2):248-68. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.12.008.

The Cellular and Molecular Landscapes of the Developing Human Central Nervous System.

Author information

1
Department of Neuroscience, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
2
Department of Neuroscience, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA; Department of Genetics and Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA; Program in Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration and Repair, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA; Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA; Yale Child Study Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA; Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Electronic address: nenad.sestan@yale.edu.

Abstract

The human CNS follows a pattern of development typical of all mammals, but certain neurodevelopmental features are highly derived. Building the human CNS requires the precise orchestration and coordination of myriad molecular and cellular processes across a staggering array of cell types and over a long period of time. Dysregulation of these processes affects the structure and function of the CNS and can lead to neurological or psychiatric disorders. Recent technological advances and increased focus on human neurodevelopment have enabled a more comprehensive characterization of the human CNS and its development in both health and disease. The aim of this review is to highlight recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular landscapes of the developing human CNS, with focus on the cerebral neocortex, and the insights these findings provide into human neural evolution, function, and dysfunction.

KEYWORDS:

brain development; developmental milestones; evolution; genomics; lateralization; neurodevelopmental disorders; regulatory elements; species differences; transcription factor

PMID:
26796689
PMCID:
PMC4959909
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuron.2015.12.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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