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Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Oct;57:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.01.005. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Adult oligodendrocyte progenitor cells - Multifaceted regulators of the CNS in health and disease.

Author information

1
Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, Department of Neuroscience, Graduate Program in Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
2
Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, Department of Neuroscience, Graduate Program in Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. Electronic address: ag7h@virginia.edu.

Abstract

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are the often-overlooked fourth glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS), comprising about 5% of the CNS. For a long time, our vision of OPC function was limited to the generation of mature oligodendrocytes. However, new studies have highlighted the multifaceted nature of OPCs. During homeostatic and pathological conditions, OPCs are the most proliferative cell type in the CNS, a property not consistent with the need to generate new oligodendrocytes. Indeed, OPCs modulate neuronal activity and OPC depletion in the brain can trigger depressive-like behavior. More importantly, OPCs are actively recruited to injury sites, where they orchestrate glial scar formation and contribute to the immune response. The following is a comprehensive analysis of the literature on OPC function beyond myelination, in the context of the healthy and diseased adult CNS.

KEYWORDS:

Glial scar; Inflammation; Multiple sclerosis; Myelin; Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

PMID:
26796621
PMCID:
PMC4940337
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbi.2016.01.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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