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Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2016;26(1):28-33. doi: 10.5606/kbbihtisas.2016.87059.

Relationship between smoking and otorhinolaryngological symptoms.

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Department of Otolaryngology, Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital, 34865 Cevizli, Kartal, İstanbul, Turkey.



This study aims to investigate the possible relationship between smoking and otorhinolaryngological symptoms in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers.


Between March 01st, 2014 and March 31st, 2014, a total of 1,840 patients (823 males, 1,017 females) over 25 years of age who were admitted to the ear nose, and throat (ENT) outpatient clinic were included in the study. The patients who were smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily for at least five years were included in the smokers group (n=514). The patients who did not smoke for at least one year following at least five years of smoking were included in the ex-smokers group (n=268). The patients who never smoked were included in the non-smokers group (n=1,058). A form containing all ENT symptoms was given to all patients and the patients were asked to fill the form with their complaints following being informed by the same doctor.


Cough, shortness of breath, reflux, dryness of throat, irritation, taste disorder, bad breath, toothache, nasal congestion, smell disorders, snoring, and nasal discharge were found to be significantly higher in the smokers group, compared to the non-smokers group. Cough, sputum, hoarseness, dysphagia, reflux, sore throat, dryness of throat, irritation, stinging, oral aphthae, taste disorder, toothache, bleeding gums, and bad breath were significantly lower in the ex-smokers group. Nasal congestion, nosebleeds, sneezing, nasal discharge, smell disorders, headache, feeling of facial fullness, ear discharge, hearing loss, pain, fullness, dizziness, and tinnitus were statistically significantly lower in the ex-smokers group.


Our study results show that smoking causes symptoms particularly associated with upper respiratory tract and these symptoms may persist in ex-smokers.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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