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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Feb;20(2):193-201. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.15.0558.

Anaemia in patients with HIV-associated TB: relative contributions of anaemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, USA; Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
2
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK.
3
Division of Haematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; C17 Clinical Pathology Laboratory, National Health Laboratory Service and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.
4
The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
5
Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
6
The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Anaemia commonly complicates both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB), contributing substantially to morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying anaemia and corresponding treatments in co-infected patients are poorly defined.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the relative contributions of anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) and iron deficiency to anaemia in patients with HIV-associated TB.

DESIGN:

Consecutively recruited hospitalised (n = 102) and matched ambulatory patients (n = 51) with microbiologically confirmed HIV-associated TB in Cape Town, South Africa, were included. Haemoglobin levels, iron status markers, hepcidin and pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood were measured. We determined the prevalence of ACD and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) using seven different published definitions of IDA.

RESULTS:

More than 80% of enrolled HIV-associated TB patients were anaemic, and anaemia was more severe among in-patients. Over 95% of anaemic HIV-associated TB patients had ACD, whereas the proportion with IDA using a range of seven different definitions was low overall (median <3%, range 0-32.6) in both patient groups. The proportion with IDA and hepcidin concentration ⩿ 20.0 ng/ml (predictive of responsiveness to oral iron supplementation) was also very low (median <3%, range 0-15.1).

CONCLUSIONS:

ACD was the predominant cause underlying anaemia in HIV-associated TB patients, and IDA was very uncommon in this setting. The majority of anaemic HIV-associated TB patients were unlikely to benefit from oral iron supplementation.

PMID:
26792471
DOI:
10.5588/ijtld.15.0558
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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