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Chemistry. 2016 Mar 14;22(12):3967-70. doi: 10.1002/chem.201600193. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

A Molecular Imaging Approach to Mercury Sensing Based on Hyperpolarized (129)Xe Molecular Clamp Probe.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P.R. China.
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Califonia NanoSystem Institute, The Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
3
Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, P.R. China. xinzhou@wipm.ac.cn.

Abstract

Mercury pollution, in the form of mercury ions (Hg(2+)), is a major health and environmental hazard. Commonly used sensors are invasive and limited to point measurements. Fluorescence-based sensors do not provide depth resolution needed to image spatial distributions. Herein we report a novel sensor capable of yielding spatial distributions by MRI using hyperpolarized (129)Xe. A molecular clamp probe was developed consisting of dipyrrolylquinoxaline (DPQ) derivatives and twocryptophane-A cages. The DPQ derivatives act as cation receptors whereas cryptophane-A acts as a suitable host molecule for xenon. When the DPQ moiety interacts with mercury ions, the molecular clamp closes on the ion. Due to overlap of the electron clouds of the two cryptophane-A cages, the shielding effect on the encapsulated Xe becomes important. This leads to an upfield change of the chemical shift of the encapsulated Xe. This sensor exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity toward the mercury ion. This mercury-activated hyperpolarized (129)Xe-based chemosensor is a new concept method for monitoring Hg(2+) ion distributions by MRI.

KEYWORDS:

hyperporlarized 129Xe; mercury; molecular clamp probe; molecular imaging; sensors

PMID:
26792102
DOI:
10.1002/chem.201600193
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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