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J Prev Med Hyg. 2015 Aug 5;56(2):E61-5.

Emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistant determinants in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Tehran and Qazvin provinces, Iran.

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Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran;
School of Allied Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance is an increasing clinical concern, globally. The major objective of the present study was to identify the qnr-encoding genes among the quinolone non-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from two provinces in Iran.


A total of 200 K. pneumoniae isolates were obtained from hospitals of Qazvin and Tehran, Iran. The identification of bacterial isolates was carried out by standard laboratory methods and API 20E strips. Susceptibility to quinolone compounds were examined by standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to the CLSI guideline. PCR and sequencing were employed to detect qnrA, qnrB and qnrS-encoding genes.


Of 200 K. pneumoniae isolates, 124 (62%) were nonsusceptible to quinolone compounds among those 66 (53.2%) and 58 (46.8%) isolates showed high and low-level quinolone resistance rates, respectively. Out of 124 quinolone non-susceptible isolates, qnr-encoding genes were present in 49 (39.5%) isolates with qnrB1 (30.6%) as the most dominant gene followed by qnrB4 (9.7%), and qnrS1 (1.6%) either alone or in combination.


This study, for the first time, revealed the high appearance of qnrB1, qnrS1 and qnrB4 genes among the clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae in Iran. Therefore, the application of proper infection control measures and well-established antibiotic administration guideline should be strictly considered within our medical centers.


Klebsiella pneumoniae; Quinolones resistance; qnr


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