Send to

Choose Destination
Infect Chemother. 2015 Dec;47(4):239-46. doi: 10.3947/ic.2015.47.4.239. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

The Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of Acute Serum Creatinine Elevation more than 1.5 mg/dL among the Patients Treated with Tenofovir/Emtricitabine-containing HAART Regimens.

Author information

Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.



The combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) has been the first choice nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) according to many reliable antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines because of its high efficacy. However, TDF-related renal toxicity reported in Western countries is a challenging issue regarding clinical use. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of an acute increase in serum creatinine (Cr) level > 1.5 mg/dL among TDF/FTC-based highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-treated patients.


We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 205 HIV-infected patients treated with TDF/FTC-containing regimens between 1 February 2010 and 30 April 2014. Three groups of TDF/FTC + ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r), TDF/FTC + non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and TDF/FTC + integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), and three PI/r subgroups of TDF/FTC + lopinavir (LPV)/r, TDF/FTC + atazanavir (ATV)/r, TDF/FTC + darunavir (DRV)/r were evaluated.


A total 136 patients (91 in the TDF/FTC + PI/r group, 20 in the TDF/FTC + NNRTI group and 25 in the TDF/FTC + INSTI group) were included in the statistical analysis. Four cases (4.9%; all in the TDF/FTC + PI/r group) among 136 patients showed an acute increase in serum Cr more than 1.5 mg/dL, so the overall incidence was 2.8 cases per 100 patient-years. One case was a patient treated with TDF/FTC + LPV/r, and the others were treated with TDF/FTC + ATV/r. No case of an acute increase in serum Cr was observed in the TDF/FTC + DRV/r group. The incidence of serum Cr increase more than 1.5 mg/dL in TDF/FTC + PI/r group was 4.0 cases per 100 patient-years.


Although only a small number of patients were evaluated retrospectively from a single center, the TDF/FTC + PI/r regimen may have been related with relatively higher tendency of increment of serum Cr level. These findings reinforce the importance of close follow-ups of HIV-infected patients treated with the TDF/FTC + PI/r regimens.


Antiretroviral agents; Human immunodeficiency virus; Nephrotoxicity; Protease inhibitors; Tenofovir

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Korean Society of Infectious Diseases; Korean Society for Chemotherapy Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center