Send to

Choose Destination
Food Sci Nutr. 2015 Jul 30;4(1):103-9. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.268. eCollection 2016 Jan.

Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

Author information

Department of Biochemistry Faculty of Life Sciences University of Benin PMB 1154 Benin City Nigeria.
Department of Microbiology Faculty of Life Sciences University of Benin PMB 1154 Benin City Nigeria.
Department of Medical Biochemistry Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences University of Benin PMB 1154 Benin City Nigeria.


The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.


Antimiocrobial; antioxidant; citrus; juice concentrate

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center