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Food Funct. 2016 Feb;7(2):1096-102. doi: 10.1039/c5fo01197c.

Inclusion of ancient Latin-American crops in bread formulation improves intestinal iron absorption and modulates inflammatory markers.

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Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Av. Agustín Escardino 7, Parque Científico, 46980 Paterna-Valencia, Spain.


This study compares iron (Fe) absorption in Fe-deficient animals from bread formulations prepared by substitution of white wheat flour (WB) by whole wheat flour (WWB), amaranth flour (Amaranthus hypochondriacus, 25%) (AB) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa, 25%) (QB), or chia flour (Salvia hispanica L, 5%) (ChB). Hematological parameters of Fe homeostasis, plasmatic active hepcidin peptide production (LC coupled to Ms/Ms), and liver TfR-2 and IL-6 expression (RT-qPCR) were determined. The different bread formulations increased Fe content between 14% and 83% relative to white bread. Only animals fed with WWB, AB and ChB increased haemoglobin concentrations significantly. Feeding the different bread formulations did not increase hepcidin levels, but down-regulated transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) (apart from WWB) and IL-6 (apart from QB) expression levels. Only AB and ChB had a significant influence on Fe bioavailability at the investigated level of substitution. The potential contribution of these flours would not differ considerably from that of WWB.

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