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Br J Nutr. 2016 Feb 28;115(4):737-50. doi: 10.1017/S0007114515005000. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Dairy consumption and CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
1EpidStat Institute,2100 Commonwealth Blvd,Suite 203,Ann Arbor,MI 48105USA.
2
3Exponent Inc.,Health Sciences,Bellevue, WA,USA.
3
5EpidStat Institute,Johns Hopkins Campus,9601 Medical Center Drive,Rockville,MD 20850,USA.
4
4EpidStat Institute,149 Commonwealth Drive,Menlo Park,CA 94025,USA.

Abstract

Inverse associations between dairy consumption and CVD have been reported in several epidemiological studies. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of dairy intake and CVD. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies that reported risk estimates for total dairy intake, individual dairy products, low/full-fat dairy intake, Ca from dairy sources and CVD, CHD and stroke. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for high v. low intake and stratified intake dose-response analyses. Additional dose-response analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was examined in sub-group and sensitivity analyses. In total, thirty-one unique cohort studies were identified and included in the meta-analysis. Several statistically significant SRRE below 1.0 were observed, namely for total dairy intake and stroke (SRRE=0·91; 95% CI 0·83, 0·99), cheese intake and CHD (SRRE=0·82; 95% CI 0·72, 0·93) and stroke (SRRE=0·87; 95% CI 0·77, 0·99), and Ca from dairy sources and stroke (SRRE=0·69; 95% CI 0·60, 0·81). However, there was little evidence for inverse dose-response relationships between the dairy variables and CHD and stroke after adjusting for within-study covariance. The results of this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies have shown that dairy consumption may be associated with reduced risks of CVD, although additional data are needed to more comprehensively examine potential dose-response patterns.

KEYWORDS:

CHD; CVD; Dairy products; Epidemiology; GLST generalised least-squares trend; ICD International Classification of Diseases; Meta-analyses; Milk; RR relative risk; SRRE summary relative risk estimate; Stroke

PMID:
26786887
DOI:
10.1017/S0007114515005000
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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