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Eur J Immunol. 2016 Apr;46(4):964-70. doi: 10.1002/eji.201545520. Epub 2016 Feb 8.

Carrageenan-induced inflammation promotes ROS generation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation in a mouse model of peritonitis.

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Centro Infant, Institute of Biomedical Research (IPB), Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Cellular and Molecular Biology Graduate Program, Faculty of Biosciences, PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Laboratory of Research in Cellular Biophysics and Inflammation, PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.


Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a combination of DNA fibers and granular proteins, such as neutrophil elastase (NE). NETs are released in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli. Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Chondrus crispus, a marine algae, used for decades in research for its potential to induce inflammation in different animal models. In this study, we show for the first time that carrageenan injection can induce NET release in a mouse model of acute peritonitis. Carrageenan induced NET release by viable neutrophils with NE and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expressed on DNA fibers. Furthermore, although this polysaccharide was able to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by peritoneal neutrophils, NADPH oxidase derived ROS were dispensable for NET formation by carrageenan. In conclusion, our results show that carrageenan-induced inflammation in the peritoneum of mice can induce NET formation in an ROS-independent manner. These results may add important information to the field of inflammation and potentially lead to novel anti-inflammatory agents targeting the production of NETs.


Carrageenan; Myeloperoxidase; Neutrophil Elastase; Neutrophil Extracellular Traps; Neutrophils

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