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J Environ Sci Health B. 2016;51(4):230-5. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2015.1120616. Epub 2016 Jan 19.

Reduction of nitrogen excretion and emission in poultry: A review for organic poultry.

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a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , University of Food Technologies , Plovdiv , Bulgaria.
b Department of Animal Resources Science , Kongju National University , Yesan , Chungnam , Republic of Korea.
c Department of Animal Science , Pennsylvania State University , University Park , Pennsylvania , USA.
d Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas , Fayetteville , Arkansas , USA.
e Department of Poultry Science , University of Georgia , Athens , Georgia , USA.


Organic poultry is an alternative to conventional poultry which is rapidly developing as a response to customers' demand for better food and a cleaner environment. Although organic poultry manure can partially be utilized by organic horticultural producers, litter accumulation as well as excessive nitrogen still remains a challenge to maintain environment pureness, animal, and human health. Compared to conventional poultry, diet formulation without nitrogen overloading in organic poultry is even more complicated due to specific standards and regulations which limit the application of some supplements and imposes specific criteria to the ingredients in use. This is especially valid for methionine provision which supplementation as a crystalline form is only temporarily allowed. This review is focused on the utilization of various protein sources in the preparation of a diet composed of 100% organic ingredients which meet the avian physiology need for methionine, while avoiding protein overload. The potential to use unconventional protein sources such as invertebrates and microbial proteins to achieve optimal amino acid provision is also discussed.


Microbial protein; nitrogen excretion; organic Poultry; unconventional protein sources

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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