Send to

Choose Destination
Int Health. 2016 Jan;8(1):44-52. doi: 10.1093/inthealth/ihv075.

Prevalence of violence in childhood and adolescence and the impact on educational outcomes: evidence from the 2013 Peruvian national survey on social relations.

Author information

Moray House School of Education, Holyrood Road, University of Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 8AQ
Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, San Miguel, Lima 32, Peru.
Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática - INEI, Dirección Nacional de Censos y Encuestas, Av. Gral. Garzón 654-658, Jesús María Lima-Perú
Moray House School of Education, Holyrood Road, University of Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 8AQ.
UNICEF Peru, UNICEF Parque Meliton Porras 350 Miraflores, Lima, Perú
Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations (MIMP), Jr. Camana 616, Lima, Perú
College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University, No. 17 Qinghuadong Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100083, China.



This study provides, for the first time, national population-based estimates describing violence during childhood and adolescence in Peru and the impact on educational outcomes.


A population-based school survey was conducted among children aged 9-11 (n=1587) and adolescents aged 12-17 (n=1489). The relationship between violence and educational outcomes were analysed using bivariate logistic regressions, controlling for potential confounding factors.


The results show that psychological (75.6%) and physical violence (72.5%) at home were the most prevalent forms of violence experienced by adolescent girls. Adolescent boys reported experiencing similar levels of psychological violence from their peers (69.4%) and at home (68.1%). For the younger cohort, peer-to-peer psychological violence was reported more frequently among girls (70.6%) and boys (74.0%) than other forms of violence. Equal percentages of adolescent girls and boys reported experiencing sexual violence in their lifetime (42.0%). The relationship between violence experiences and educational outcomes varied by gender with strong associations between violence at home and failing a course or repeating a grade for girls and being expelled for boys. Sexual violence experienced by boys was associated with all negative educational outcomes.


The relationship between violence in childhood and poorer educational outcomes is multi-faceted, potentially bi-directional, and manifests differently between genders. This research highlights the need for targeted research, policy and programming responses for prevention of violence.


Educational outcomes; Peru; Prevalence; Schools; Violence against children

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center