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Front Oncol. 2015 Dec 23;5:292. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2015.00292. eCollection 2015.

Outcomes and Predictors of Toxicity after Selective Internal Radiation Therapy Using Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

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Division of Hematology and Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Hospital , Washington, DC , USA.
Department of Interventional Radiology, Georgetown University Hospital , Washington, DC , USA.
Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Hospital , Washington, DC , USA.



We sought to report outcomes and toxicity in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who received resin yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy ((90)Y-SIRT) and to identify factors associated with declining liver function.


Patients treated with (90)Y-SIRT were retrospectively evaluated. Radiographic response was assessed using RECIST 1.1. Median liver progression-free survival (LPFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Bivariate analysis was used to examine associations between change in Child-Pugh (CP) score/class and patient characteristics and treatment parameters.


Twenty-seven patients with unresectable HCC underwent SIRT, 52% were CP Class A, 48% were Class B, 11% were BCLC stage B, and 89% were stage C. Forty-four percent of patients had portal vein thrombus at baseline. One-third of patients received bilobar treatment. Median activity was 32.1 mCi (range 9.18-43.25) and median--absorbed dose to the liver was 39.6 Gy (range 13.54-67.70). Median LPFS and OS were 2.5 and 11.7 months, respectively. Three-month disease control rate was 63 and 52% in the target lesions and whole liver, respectively. New onset or worsened from baseline clinical toxicities were confined to Grade 1-2 events. However, new or worsened Grade 3-4 laboratory toxicities occurred in 38% of patients at 3 months and 43% of patients at 6 months following SIRT (six had lymphocytopenia, three had hypoalbuminemia, and two had transaminasemia). After 3 months, six patients had worsened in CP score and five had worsened in class from baseline. After 6 months, four patients had worsened in CP score and one had worsened in class from baseline. Pretreatment bilirubinemia was associated with a 2+ increase in CP score within 3 months (P = 0.001) and 6 months (P = 0.039) of (90)Y-SIRT. Pretreatment transaminasemia and bilirubinemia were associated with increased CP class within 3 months of SIRT (P = 0.021 and 0.009, respectively).


(90)Y-SIRT was well-tolerated in patients with unresectable HCC, with no Grade 3-4 clinical toxicities. However, Grade 3-4 laboratory toxicities and worsened CP scores were more frequent. HCC patients with pretreatment bilirubinemia or transaminasemia may be at higher risk of experiencing a decline in liver function following (90)Y-SIRT.


SIRT; hepatocellular carcinoma; toxicity; yttrium-90

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