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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2016 Feb;47(2):124-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2015.12.003. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Impact of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on voriconazole dosing and exposure in adult patients with invasive fungal infections.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital, Rouen, France; INSERM U1096, University of Rouen, School of Medicine, Rouen, France. Electronic address: fabien.lamoureux@chu-rouen.fr.
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital, Rouen, France; INSERM U1096, University of Rouen, School of Medicine, Rouen, France.
3
INSERM UMR 850, University of Limoges, CHU Limoges, Limoges, France.
4
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital, Rouen, France.
5
Department of Pneumology, University Hospital, Rouen, France.
6
Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis and Pharmacogenetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology Program, ICBM, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Abstract

Voriconazole (VCZ) use is limited by its narrow therapeutic range and significant interpatient variability in exposure. This study aimed to assess (i) the impact of CYP2C19 genotype on VCZ exposure and (ii) the doses required to achieve the therapeutic range in adult patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of VCZ, based on trough concentration measurement, and CYP2C19 genotyping were used to guide VCZ dosing in Caucasian patients with IFIs. The two common polymorphisms in Caucasians (CYP2C19*2 and *17), associated with decreased or increased CYP2C19 activity, respectively, were correlated with the daily VCZ dose, pharmacokinetic parameters and concentration-to-dose ratio. In total, 111 trough concentration measurements from 35 genotyped patients were analysed using linear mixed-effect models. The mean VCZ doses required to achieve target concentrations were significantly higher in CYP2C19*17 carriers compared with CYP2C19*1/*1 individuals (P<0.001): 2.57±0.25mg/kg twice daily in CYP2C19*1/*1 patients versus 3.94±0.39mg/kg and 6.75±0.54mg/kg in *1/*17 and *17/*17 patients, respectively. In addition, exposure to VCZ correlated with the CYP2C19*17 variant. Indices of exposure for CYP2C19*2 carriers were in line with the functional effect of this polymorphism compared with CYP2C19*1/*1 individuals, however comparisons of doses required to achieve target concentrations were not statistically different. The CYP2C19*17 allele predicted both VCZ exposure and dose required to achieve effective and non-toxic concentrations. CYP2C19 genotyping appears useful to guide VCZ initial dosing when coupled with TDM and to explain subtherapeutic concentrations frequently observed in clinical practice.

KEYWORDS:

Antifungals; CYP2C19; Drug monitoring; Pharmacogenomics; Voriconazole

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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