Send to

Choose Destination
J Surg Educ. 2016 Mar-Apr;73(2):197-207. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2015.10.005. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

An Event-Based Approach to Design a Teamwork Training Scenario and Assessment Tool in Surgery.

Author information

Ohio Health Learning, Riverside Methodist Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.
Department of Medical Education, Riverside Methodist Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:



Simulation is a technique recommended for teaching and measuring teamwork, but few published methodologies are available on how best to design simulation for teamwork training in surgery and health care in general. The purpose of this article is to describe a general methodology, called event-based approach to training (EBAT), to guide the design of simulation for teamwork training and discuss its application to surgery.


The EBAT methodology draws on the science of training by systematically introducing training exercise events that are linked to training requirements (i.e., competencies being trained and learning objectives) and performance assessment. The EBAT process involves:


Of the 4 teamwork competencies endorsed by the Agency for Healthcare Research Quality and Department of Defense, "communication" was chosen to be the focus of our training efforts. A total of 5 learning objectives were defined based on 5 validated teamwork and communication techniques. Diagnostic laparoscopy was chosen as the clinical context to frame the training scenario, and 29 KSAs were defined based on review of published literature on patient safety and input from subject matter experts. Critical events included those that correspond to a specific phase in the normal flow of a surgical procedure as well as clinical events that may occur when performing the operation. Similar to the targeted KSAs, targeted responses to the critical events were developed based on existing literature and gathering input from content experts. Finally, a 29-item EBAT-derived checklist was created to assess communication performance.


Like any instructional tool, simulation is only effective if it is designed and implemented appropriately. It is recognized that the effectiveness of simulation depends on whether (1) it is built upon a theoretical framework, (2) it uses preplanned structured exercises or events to allow learners the opportunity to exhibit the targeted KSAs, (3) it assesses performance, and (4) it provides formative and constructive feedback to bridge the gap between the learners' KSAs and the targeted KSAs. The EBAT methodology guides the design of simulation that incorporates these 4 features and, thus, enhances training effectiveness with simulation.


Interpersonal and Communication Skills; Practice-Based Learning and Improvement; Professionalism; assessment; communication; event based; residency training; simulation; surgery; teamwork

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center