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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016 May 15;299:70-7. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.01.005. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Understanding the immunogenicity and antigenicity of nanomaterials: Past, present and future.

Author information

1
Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NCI at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.
2
Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NCI at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. Electronic address: marina@mail.nih.gov.

Abstract

Nanoparticle immunogenicity and antigenicity have been under investigation for many years. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in understanding what makes a nanoparticle immunogenic, how immune cells respond to nanoparticles, what consequences of nanoparticle-specific antibody formation exist and how they challenge the application of nanoparticles for drug delivery. Moreover, it has been recognized that accidental contamination of therapeutic protein formulations with nanosized particulate materials may contribute to the immunogenicity of this type of biotechnology products. While the immunological properties of engineered nanomaterials and their application as vaccine carriers and adjuvants have been given substantial consideration in the current literature, little attention has been paid to nanoparticle immuno- and antigenicity. To fill in this gap, we herein provide an overview of this subject to highlight the current state of the field, review past and present research, and discuss future research directions.

KEYWORDS:

Anaphylaxis; Antibody; Antigenicity; Cytokines; Immunogenicity; Nanoparticles; Phagocytosis; Preclinical

PMID:
26773813
PMCID:
PMC4811736
DOI:
10.1016/j.taap.2016.01.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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