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Arch Oral Biol. 2016 Apr;64:51-60. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2015.12.009. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Caffeine may enhance orthodontic tooth movement through increasing osteoclastogenesis induced by periodontal ligament cells under compression.

Author information

1
Department of Orthodontics, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China School and Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
2
Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, China.
3
Department of Orthodontics, Guanghua School and Hospital of Stomatology, Sun yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
4
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China School and Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
5
Department of Orthodontics, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China School and Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address: yuli@scu.edu.cn.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Caffeine is the kernel component of coffee and has multiple effects on bone metabolism. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine intake on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM).

DESIGN:

(1) In the in vivo study, two groups comprising 15 randomly assigned rats each underwent orthodontic treatment. One group ingested caffeine at 25mg/kg body weight per day and the other, plain water. After 3 weeks, the degree of tooth movement and effect on the periodontium were assessed. (2) In the in vitro study, we established a model mimicking the essential bioprocess of OTM, which contained a periodontal ligament tissue model (PDLtm), and a co-culture system of osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclast precursors (pre-OCs). After being subjected to static compressive force with or without caffeine administration, the conditioned media from the PDLtm were used for the OB/pre-OC co-cultures to induce osteoclastogenesis.

RESULTS:

(1) In vivo, the caffeine group displayed a significantly greater rate of tooth movement than the control. The alveolar bone mineral density and bone volume fraction were similar between the two groups; however, immunohistochemical staining showed that the caffeine group had significantly more TRAP(+) osteoclasts and higher RANKL expression in the compressed periodontium. (2) In vitro, caffeine at 0.01mM significantly enhanced the compression-induced expression of RANKL and COX-2, as well as prostaglandin E2 production in the PDLtm. Furthermore, the "caffeine+compression"-conditioned media induced significantly more TRAP(+) OC formation when compared with compression alone.

CONCLUSIONS:

Daily intake of caffeine, at least at some specific dosage, may enhance OTM through increasing osteoclastogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

Bone remodeling; Caffeine; Orthodontic tooth movement; Osteoclastogenesis; Periodontal ligament

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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