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Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2016 Apr;49:1-15. doi: 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2015.12.002. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Development and validation of real-time simulation of X-ray imaging with respiratory motion.

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School of Computer Science, Bangor University, LL57 1UT, United Kingdom; Research Institute of Visual Computing, RIVIC, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
Université de Lorraine, LORIA, UMR 7503, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506, France; Inria, Villers-lès-Nancy F-54600, France; CNRS, LORIA, UMR 7503, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506, France. Electronic address:


We present a framework that combines evolutionary optimisation, soft tissue modelling and ray tracing on GPU to simultaneously compute the respiratory motion and X-ray imaging in real-time. Our aim is to provide validated building blocks with high fidelity to closely match both the human physiology and the physics of X-rays. A CPU-based set of algorithms is presented to model organ behaviours during respiration. Soft tissue deformation is computed with an extension of the Chain Mail method. Rigid elements move according to kinematic laws. A GPU-based surface rendering method is proposed to compute the X-ray image using the Beer-Lambert law. It is provided as an open-source library. A quantitative validation study is provided to objectively assess the accuracy of both components: (i) the respiration against anatomical data, and (ii) the X-ray against the Beer-Lambert law and the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Our implementation can be used in various applications, such as interactive medical virtual environment to train percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in interventional radiology, 2D/3D registration, computation of digitally reconstructed radiograph, simulation of 4D sinograms to test tomography reconstruction tools.


Deterministic simulation (ray-tracing); Digitally reconstructed radiograph; Imaging guidance; Interventional radiology training; Medical virtual environment; Respiration simulation; X-ray simulation

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