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Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2016;7:313-33. doi: 10.1146/annurev-food-041715-033159. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Bile Acid Modifications at the Microbe-Host Interface: Potential for Nutraceutical and Pharmaceutical Interventions in Host Health.

Joyce SA1,2, Gahan CG1,3,4.

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APC Microbiome Institute.
School of Biochemistry and Cell Biology.
School of Microbiology.
School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; email: ,


Bile acids have emerged as important signaling molecules in the host, as they interact either locally or systemically with specific cellular receptors, in particular the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. These signaling functions influence systemic lipid and cholesterol metabolism, energy metabolism, immune homeostasis, and intestinal electrolyte balance. Through defined enzymatic activities, the gut microbiota can significantly modify the signaling properties of bile acids and therefore can have an impact upon host health. Alterations to the gut microbiota that influence bile acid metabolism are associated with metabolic disease, obesity, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Clostridium difficile infection, colorectal cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we examine the regulation of this gut-microbiota-liver axis in the context of bile acid metabolism and indicate how this pathway represents an important target for the development of new nutraceutical (diet and/or probiotics) and targeted pharmaceutical interventions.


bile acid; cholesterol; microbiota; obesity; probiotic

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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