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J Hypertens. 2016 Mar;34(3):429-37; discussion 437. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000822.

Eating frequency predicts new onset hypertension and the rate of progression of blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections.

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aLaboratory of Nutrition and Clinical Dietetics, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University bVascular Laboratory, Department of Clinical Therapeutics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece *Kalliopi Karatzi and Georgios Georgiopoulos contributed equally to the writing of this article.



Cross-sectional evidence indicates that eating frequency correlates with blood pressure, hypertension, and related target organ damage. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess eating frequency as a predictor of arteriosclerosis progression and new onset hypertension over a follow-up period of 5 years in adults without cardiovascular disease.


Eating frequency among other dietary parameters was evaluated in 115 nondiabetic study participants from a general population sample (54 ± 9.1 years, 45 women) at a baseline visit. Metabolic parameters known to be associated with eating frequency, markers of arteriosclerosis, including augmentation index, pulse wave velocity, SBP, and DBP were evaluated in all volunteers at baseline and after a 5-year follow-up.


By applying linear mixed models analysis, it was found that a high eating frequency at baseline significantly correlated with the rate of progression of pulse wave velocity (β = 0.521, P = 0.004), augmentation index (β = 0.503, P = 0.01), SBP (β = 0.694, P < 0.001), and DBP (β = 0.477, P = 0.009) and the incidence of new onset hypertension (odds ratio = 8.89, P < 0.001). After adjustment traditional cardiovascular risk factors, heart rate, homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance and total energy intake, the associations with augmentation index, SBP, DBP, and new onset hypertension remained significant.


In a population of nondiabetic adults without cardiovascular disease, eating frequency is associated with the rate of progression of wave reflections, blood pressure and of new onset hypertension. Interventional studies should confirm these data and possibly further assess the utility of eating behavior in the prevention of new onset hypertension and related target organ damage.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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