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PLoS One. 2016 Jan 15;11(1):e0146975. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146975. eCollection 2016.

Co-Circulation of Canine Coronavirus I and IIa/b with High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China.

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College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, No. 5 Xinfeng Road, Sartu District, Daqing 163319, P.R. China.
National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 427 Maduan Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150001, P.R. China.


To trace the evolution of canine coronavirus (CCoV), 201 stool samples from diarrheic dogs in northeast China were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) targeting the partial M and S genes of CCoV, followed by an epidemiological analysis. M gene RT-PCRs showed that 28.36% (57/201) of the samples were positive for CCoV; of the 57 positive samples, CCoV-I and CCoV-II accounted for 15.79% (9/57) and 84.21% (48/57), respectively. A sequence comparison of the partial M gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 88.4%-100% among the 57 CCoV strains, and 88.7%-96.2% identity between the 57 CCoV strains and the Chinese reference strain HF3. The CCoV-I and CCoV-II strains exhibited genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. The 57 CCoV strains exhibited high co-infection rates with canine kobuvirus (CaKV) (33.33%) and canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) (31.58%). The CCoV prevalence in diarrheic dogs differed significantly with immunization status, regions, seasons, and ages. Moreover, 28 S genes were amplified from the 57 CCoV-positive samples, including 26 CCoV-IIa strains, one CCoV-IIb strain, and one CCoV-I strain. A sequence comparison of the partial S gene revealed 86.3%-100% nucleotide identity among the 26 CCoV-IIa strains, and 89.6%-92.2% identity between the 26 CCoV-IIa strains and the Chinese reference strain V1. The 26 CCoV-IIa strains showed genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. Our data provide evidence that CCoV-I, CCoV-IIa, and CCoV-IIb strains co-circulate in the diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China, high co-infection rates with CaKV and CPV-2 were observed, and the CCoV-II strains exhibited high prevalence and genetic diversity.

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