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Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2016 Sep;31(9):1013-20. doi: 10.1002/gps.4412. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Screening for cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease with the clock drawing test.

Author information

1
Center for Mental Health Care Delfland, Delft, the Netherlands.
2
Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of the clock drawing test as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease (HD) mutation carriers.

METHODS:

The performance of the clock drawing test was assessed in 65 mutation carriers using the Shulman and the Freund scoring systems. The mini-mental state examination, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, and the Stroop tests were used as comparisons for the evaluation of cognitive functioning. Correlations of the clock drawing test with various cognitive tests (convergent validity), neuropsychiatric characteristics (divergent validity) and clinical characteristics were analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Receiver-operator characteristic analyses were performed for the clock drawing test against both the mini-mental state examination and against a composite variable for executive cognitive functioning to assess optimal cut-off scores.

RESULTS:

Inter-rater reliability was high for both the Shulman and Freund scoring systems (ICC = 0.95 and ICC = 0.90 respectively). The clock drawing tests showed moderate to high correlations with the composite variable for executive cognitive functioning (mean ρ = 0.75) and weaker correlations with the mini-mental state examination (mean ρ = 0.62). Mean sensitivity of the clock drawing tests was 0.82 and mean specificity was 0.79, whereas the mean positive predictive value was 0.66 and the mean negative predictive value was 0.87.

CONCLUSION:

The clock drawing test is a suitable screening instrument for cognitive dysfunction in HD, because it was shown to be accurate, particularly so with respect to executive cognitive functioning, and is easy and quick to use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEYWORDS:

Huntington's disease; assessment; dementia; executive functions

PMID:
26766850
DOI:
10.1002/gps.4412
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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