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Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Feb 2;50(3):1243-50. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04618. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Characterization of Gas-Phase Organics Using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: Cooking Emissions.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute , Villigen, 5232, Switzerland.
2
Wolfson Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratories, University of York , York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.
3
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS , LCE UMR 7376, 13331 Marseille, France.

Abstract

Cooking processes produce gaseous and particle emissions that are potentially deleterious to human health. Using a highly controlled experimental setup involving a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS), we investigate the emission factors and the detailed chemical composition of gas phase emissions from a broad variety of cooking styles and techniques. A total of 95 experiments were conducted to characterize nonmethane organic gas (NMOG) emissions from boiling, charbroiling, shallow frying, and deep frying of various vegetables and meats, as well as emissions from vegetable oils heated to different temperatures. Emissions from boiling vegetables are dominated by methanol. Significant amounts of dimethyl sulfide are emitted from cruciferous vegetables. Emissions from shallow frying, deep frying and charbroiling are dominated by aldehydes of differing relative composition depending on the oil used. We show that the emission factors of some aldehydes are particularly large which may result in considerable negative impacts on human health in indoor environments. The suitability of some of the aldehydes as tracers for the identification of cooking emissions in ambient air is discussed.

PMID:
26766423
DOI:
10.1021/acs.est.5b04618
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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