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Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2015 Dec;92(6):062817. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.062817. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

Experimental proof of faster-is-slower in systems of frictional particles flowing through constrictions.

Author information

1
Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, Spain.
2
Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Facultad Regional La Plata, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Av. 60 Esq. 124 S/N, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.
3
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (1033), C. A. de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
4
Departamento de Construcción, Instalaciones y Estructuras, Escuela Técnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad de Navarra, E-31080 Pamplona, Spain.
5
Departamento de Patología Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain.
6
Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires, 25 de Mayo 444, (1002) C. A. de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Abstract

The "faster-is-slower" (FIS) effect was first predicted by computer simulations of the egress of pedestrians through a narrow exit [D. Helbing, I. J. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Nature (London) 407, 487 (2000)]. FIS refers to the finding that, under certain conditions, an excess of the individuals' vigor in the attempt to exit causes a decrease in the flow rate. In general, this effect is identified by the appearance of a minimum when plotting the total evacuation time of a crowd as a function of the pedestrian desired velocity. Here, we experimentally show that the FIS effect indeed occurs in three different systems of discrete particles flowing through a constriction: (a) humans evacuating a room, (b) a herd of sheep entering a barn, and (c) grains flowing out a 2D hopper over a vibrated incline. This finding suggests that FIS is a universal phenomenon for active matter passing through a narrowing.

PMID:
26764754
DOI:
10.1103/PhysRevE.92.062817
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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