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Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Aug;172(2):364-71. doi: 10.1007/s12011-015-0611-1. Epub 2016 Jan 13.

Analysis of Ionomic Profiles of Canine Hairs Exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Stress.

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Animal Nutrition and Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Wanju, 55365, South Korea.
Institute of Green-Bio Science and Technology, Seoul National University, 1447 Pyungchang-daero, Pyungchang, 25354, Republic of Korea.
Department of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Republic of Korea.
GunSei Biotec, Inc, Gwacheon, 13813, Republic of Korea.


The purpose of this study was to provide a new insight on the response of canines to stress exposure; the ionomic profiles of canine hair (2.8 ± 0.3 years, 15.17 ± 2.1 kg) (n = 10) was determined before and after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections. LPS was intramuscularly injected to induce inflammatory stress responses which were confirmed by observing increases in the level of serum cortisol, aldosterone, and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. The hair contents of 17 elements were obtained by applying analytical procedures using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The following elements: sodium(Na) and potassium(K) among macro-elements, iron(Fe) and manganese(Mn) among micro-elements, and aluminum(Al), nickel(Ni), and lead(Pb) for toxic elements, showed significant increased levels with the immunological stress. The degree of increase in toxic elements was remarkable with the stress exposure. A forty-five-fold increase seen in Al accumulation with the stress exposure was noteworthy. Although mercury(Hg) and cadmium(Cd) showed decreased levels with the stress exposure, the degree was negligible compared to the level of increase. Correlation pattern between the elements was changed with the immunological stress. Toxic elements became more correlated with macro- or micro-elements than with toxic elements themselves after the stress exposure. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that LPS challenge shifted the overall hair mineral profiles to a consistent direction changing Al and K up, even in animals with different hair mineral profiles before LPS treatment. In conclusion, the multivariate data processing and study of element distribution patterns provided new information about the ionomic response of the canine hairs to immunological stress, i.e., the ionomic profiles of canine hairs is strongly affected by the stress induced by LPS injections.


Dog hair; Ionomic profile; LPS stress; Principle component analysis

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