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Regeneration (Oxf). 2015 Jun 1;2(3):137-147. Epub 2015 Jun 16.

Tissue specific reactions to positional discontinuities in the regenerating axolotl limb.

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Department of Biology & UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
Department of Biology & UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Department of Biology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA.


We investigated cellular contributions to intercalary regenerates and 180° supernumerary limbs during axolotl limb regeneration using the cell autonomous GFP marker and exchanged blastemas between white and GFP animals. After distal blastemas were grafted to proximal levels tissues of the intercalary regenerate behaved independently with regard to the law of distal transformation; graft epidermis was replaced by stump epidermis, muscle-derived cells, blood vessels and Schwann cells of the distal blastema moved proximally to the stylopodium and cartilage and dermal cells conformed to the law. After 180° rotation, blastemas showed contributions from stump tissues which failed to alter patterning of the blastema. Supernumerary limbs were composed of stump and graft tissues and extensive contributions of stump tissues generated inversions or duplications of polarity to produce limbs of mixed handedness. Tail skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle broke the law with cells derived from these tissues exhibiting an apparent anteroposterior polarity as they migrated to the anterior side of the blastema. We attribute this behavior to the possible presence of a chemotactic factor from the wound epidermis.


axolotl; chemotaxis; law of distal transformation; limb regeneration; supernumerary limbs

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