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Int Rev Psychiatry. 2016;28(1):95-102. doi: 10.3109/09540261.2015.1106446. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Non-binary or genderqueer genders.

Author information

a Nottingham Centre for Gender Dysphoria , Nottingham , UK ;
b Charing Cross Gender Identity Clinic , London , UK ;
c Department of Psychology in Social Sciences , Open University , Milton Keynes , UK ;
d Interdisciplinary Transgender Health Care Centre Hamburg, Department for Sex Research and Forensic Psychiatry , University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE) , Germany ;
e Centre for Sexology and Gender, Department of Endocrinology , Ghent University , Belgium.


Some people have a gender which is neither male nor female and may identify as both male and female at one time, as different genders at different times, as no gender at all, or dispute the very idea of only two genders. The umbrella terms for such genders are 'genderqueer' or 'non-binary' genders. Such gender identities outside of the binary of female and male are increasingly being recognized in legal, medical and psychological systems and diagnostic classifications in line with the emerging presence and advocacy of these groups of people. Population-based studies show a small percentage--but a sizable proportion in terms of raw numbers--of people who identify as non-binary. While such genders have been extant historically and globally, they remain marginalized, and as such--while not being disorders or pathological in themselves--people with such genders remain at risk of victimization and of minority or marginalization stress as a result of discrimination. This paper therefore reviews the limited literature on this field and considers ways in which (mental) health professionals may assist the people with genderqueer and non-binary gender identities and/or expressions they may see in their practice. Treatment options and associated risks are discussed.


Gender; Genderqueer; Non-binary; Transgender; Transsexual

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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