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Acta Trop. 2016 Apr;156:87-94. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.12.008. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

Detection of the emerging rotavirus G12P[8] genotype at high frequency in brazil in 2014: Successive replacement of predominant strains after vaccine introduction.

Author information

1
Enteric Disease Laboratory, Virology Centre, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: driluchs@gmail.com.
2
Enteric Disease Laboratory, Virology Centre, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.
3
Enteric Disease Laboratory, Virology Centre, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: timenetsky.m@gmail.com.

Abstract

The continuum characterization of rotavirus (RVA) genotypes is essential to understand how vaccine introduction could impact virus epidemiology. In the present study, an unexpected rapid changing pattern of RVA genotypes distribution in Brazilian population during three followed seasons is described. From January/2012 to December/2014, a total of 3441 fecal specimens were collected from collaborating centers across Southern, Southeastern and Midwest of Brazil. All specimens were screened for RVA using ELISA, and genotyped by RT-PCR. Differences in proportions were tested using Chi-Squares. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RVA was detected in 19.7% (677/3441). Among RVA positive cases (n=677), a total of 652 (96.3%) samples were successfully amplified by RT-PCR. G3P[8] remained prevalent in 2012 (37.6%, 69/185) and 2013 (40.1%, 74/186) (χ(2)=0.107, p=0.743), but declined markedly in 2014 (3.5%, 10/281) (χ(2)=71.770, p=0.000). G12P[8] was second highest strain in 2012 (22.7%, 42/185), decrease rapidly in 2013 (2.7%, 5/186) (χ(2)=26.224, p=0.000) and re-emerged as the predominant genotype in 2014 (86.6%, 243/281) (χ(2)=118.299, p=0.000). From July/2014, G12P[8] was the single genotype detected in all regions studied. The sudden emergence, spread and predominance of G12P[8] strain in Brazil, raised the hypothesis of a possible G12 outbreak being in progress. Nationally, the long term decline in gastroenteritis hospitalization observed in the country after RVA vaccine introduction was confirmed. Nevertheless, the sharp increase in diarrhea hospitalization prevalence from 2013 to 2014 observed in Southern and Southeastern regions is consistent with what appears to be an outbreak of G12P[8]. Continued surveillance is needed to verify the effectiveness of the RotarixTM vaccine in Brazil together with potential emergence of unusual genotypes.

KEYWORDS:

Brazil; Diarrhea; Gastroenteritis; Genotyping; Rotavirus; Surveillance; Vaccine

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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