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Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):162-165. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2545.

The 5300-year-old Helicobacter pylori genome of the Iceman.

Author information

1
Institute for Mummies and the Iceman, EURAC research, Viale Druso 1, 39100 Bolzano, Italy.
2
Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Kiel University, Schittenhelmstr. 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany.
3
CUBE - Division of Computational Systems Biology, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
4
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen, Rümelinstr. 23, 72072 Tübingen, Germany.
5
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Str. 10, 07745 Jena, Germany.
6
Institute for Systems Biology, 401 Terry Avenue North, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.
7
Scuola Superiore Sanitaria Provinciale "Claudiana", Via Lorenz Böhler 13, 39100 Bolzano, Italy.
8
Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Strasse 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.
9
Université de Bordeaux, Centre National de Référence des Helicobacters et Campylobacters and INSERM U853, 146 rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France.
10
Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 141 83 Stockholm, Sweden.
11
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
12
Robert Mondavi Institute for Food Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
13
Department of Zoology, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Republic of South Africa.
14
Department of Integrative Biology and Evolution, Konrad Lorenz Institute for Ethology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Savoyenstr. 1a, 1160 Vienna, Austria.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host, resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The "Iceman" H. pylori is a nearly pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe before hybridization, suggesting that the African population arrived in Europe within the past few thousand years.

PMID:
26744403
PMCID:
PMC4775254
DOI:
10.1126/science.aad2545
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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