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Chemosphere. 2016 Mar;146:435-41. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.059. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Emerging pollutants and plants--Metabolic activation of diclofenac by peroxidases.

Author information

1
Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Ingolstaedter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.
2
School of Science, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK.
3
Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Siedlungswasserwirtschaft, Am Coulombwall, 85748 Garching, Germany.
4
Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH), Ingolstaedter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. Electronic address: peter.schroeder@helmholtz-muenchen.de.

Abstract

Human pharmaceuticals and their residues are constantly detected in our waterbodies, due to poor elimination rates, even in the most advanced waste water treatment plants. Their impact on the environment and human health still remains unclear. When phytoremediation is applied to aid water treatment, plants may transform and degrade xenobiotic contaminants through phase I and phase II metabolism to more water soluble and less toxic intermediates. In this context, peroxidases play a major role in activating compounds during phase I via oxidation. In the present work, the ability of a plant peroxidase to oxidize the human painkiller diclofenac was confirmed using stopped flow spectroscopy in combination with LC-MS analysis. Analysis of an orange colored product revealed the structure of the highly reactive Diclofenac-2,5-Iminoquinone, which may be the precursor of several biological conjugates and breakdown products in planta.

KEYWORDS:

Diclofenac; Iminoquinone; LC-MS; Peroxidase; Stopped flow spectroscopy

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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