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Prev Med. 2016 Apr;85:53-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.12.013. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

The association between participation in a pay-for-performance program and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: hsiehhm@gmail.com.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Electronic address: lth@kmu.edu.tw.
3
Department of Healthcare Administration and Medical Informatics, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: ichen@kmu.edu.tw.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: d810100@cc.kmu.edu.tw.
5
Graduate Institute of Medical Genetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: sjshin@kmu.edu.tw.
6
Department of Healthcare Administration and Medical Informatics, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Research Education and Epidemiology Center, Changhua, Taiwan. Electronic address: chiu@kmu.edu.tw.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Diabetes and diabetes-related complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and contribute substantially to health care costs. Proper care can prevent or delay vascular complications in people with type 2 diabetes. We sought to examine whether a diabetes pay-for-performance (P4P) program under Taiwan's National Health Insurance program decreased risk of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes patients, and associated risk factors.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD:

We conducted a longitudinal observational case and control cohort study using two nationwide population-based databases in Taiwan, 2007-2012. Type 2 diabetes patients with a primary diabetes diagnosis in year 2007 and 2008 were included. We excluded patients with any diabetes complications within 2years before the index date. A propensity score matching approach was used to determine comparable P4P and non-P4P groups. We followed each P4P and non-P4P patient until December 31, 2012. Complication incidence rates per 1000 person-years for each complication were calculated.

RESULTS:

Overall, our results indicated that P4P patients had lower risk of macrovascular complications than non-P4P patients. Specifically, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.84 (0.80-0.88) for stroke, 0.83 (0.75-0.92) for myocardial infarction, 0.72 (0.60-0.85) for atrial fibrillation, 0.93 (0.87-0.98) for heart failure, 0.61 (0.50-0.73) for gangrene, and 0.83 (0.74-0.93) for ulcer of lower limbs.

CONCLUSIONS:

Compared with patients not enrolled in the P4P program, P4P patients had lower risk of developing serious vascular complications. Our empirical findings provide evidence for the potential long-term benefit of P4P programs in reducing risks of macrovascular complications.

KEYWORDS:

Diabetes care; Disease management; Macrovascular complications; Pay-for-performance; Preventive care

PMID:
26740347
DOI:
10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.12.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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