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J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Jan 27;64(3):585-95. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b05404. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

HRMS Profile of a Hazelnut Skin Proanthocyanidin-rich Fraction with Antioxidant and Anti-Candida albicans Activities.

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Department of Pharmacy and ‡Ph.D. Program in Drug Discovery and Development, University of Salerno , Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy.


Roasted hazelnut skins (RHS) represent a byproduct of kernel industrial processing. In this research, a RHS extract (RHS-M) and its fraction RHS-M-F3 enriched in proanthocyanidins (PAs), with antioxidant activity, were characterized in terms of total phenolic compound and PA contents. RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 showed antifungal properties against Candida albicans SC5314 (MIC2 = 3.00 and 0.10 μg/mL and MIC0 = 5.00 and 0.50 μg/mL, respectively), determined by the microbroth dilution method and Candida albicans morphological analysis. No cytotoxic effect on HEKa and HDFa cell lines was exhibited by RHS-M and RHS-M-F3. The metabolite profiling of RHS-M and RHS-M-F3 was performed by thiolysis followed by HPLC-UV-HRMS analysis and a combination of HRMS-FIA and HPLC-HRMS(n). Extract and fraction contain oligomeric PAs (mDP of 7.3 and 6.0, respectively, and DP up to 10) mainly constituted by B-type oligomers of (epi)-catechin. Also, (epi)-gallocatechin and gallate derivatives were identified as monomer units, and A-type PAs were detected as minor compounds.


Candida albicans; HPLC-HRMSn analysis; HRMS flow injection analysis; hazelnut skins; industry byproducts; proanthocyanidins

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