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Int Neurourol J. 2015 Dec;19(4):286-92. doi: 10.5213/inj.2015.19.4.286. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Men With Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are at Increased Risk of Depression.

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Department of Urology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
Center for Farmer's Safety and Health, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan, Korea.



Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) comprise a set of common, bothersome symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men. Recent research suggests that depressive symptoms may influence the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We performed a community-based cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation between LUTS and depression.


The survey was conducted in a rural community during four periods in August 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Two validated questionnaires were used to examine LUTS and depressive symptoms. These included the International Prostate Symptom Score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D-K). Patients were categorized in the depressive symptom group if their CES-D-K score was >16 points.


A total of 711 men were included in this study. Thirty-five participants (4.92%) were found to have depressive symptoms. There was a positive correlation between depressive symptoms and LUTS severity (P<0.001). As compared to the mild LUTS group, the odds ratio (OR) of depression was 2.868 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.293-6.362; P for trend<0.001) in the moderate LUTS group, and 4.133 (95% CI, 1.510-11.313; P for trend<0.001) in the severe LUTS group. In a model considering multiple variables such as age, education level, smoking, and exercise, the OR in the moderate LUTS group was 2.534 (1.125-5.708, 95% CI, P for trend=0.005), while that in the severe LUTS group was 3.910 (95% CI, 5.708-11.154; P for trend=0.005). In addition, depression was related to voiding symptoms.


Men with severe LUTS are at higher risk of depression than those with less severe urinary symptoms. The severity of voiding symptoms worsens depression. More aggressive urological diagnosis and treatment is needed in patients with severe LUTS, due to the impact on depressive symptoms and QoL.


Depression; Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms; Prostatic Hyperplasia

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