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Oncotarget. 2016 Feb 2;7(5):5677-89. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.6801.

Kaiso, a transcriptional repressor, promotes cell migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells through regulation of miR-31 expression.

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Department of Biology and Center for Cancer Research, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, USA.
Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, Cancer Center of Research, Frederick, MD, USA.
Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
Department of Oncologic Research, University Hospital and Clinics, Lafayette General Health, Lafayette, LA, USA.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, USA.
Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.


Kaiso, a member of the BTB/POZ zinc finger protein family, functions as a transcriptional repressor by binding to sequence-specific Kaiso binding sites or to methyl-CpG dinucleotides. Previously, we demonstrated that Kaiso overexpression and nuclear localization correlated with the progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, our objective was to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying Kaiso-mediated PCa progression. Comparative analysis of miRNA arrays revealed that 13 miRNAs were significantly altered (> 1.5 fold, p < 0.05) in sh-Kaiso PC-3 compared to sh-Scr control cells. Real-time PCR validated that three miRNAs (9, 31, 636) were increased in sh-Kaiso cells similar to cells treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. miR-31 expression negatively correlated with Kaiso expression and with methylation of the miR-31 promoter in a panel of PCa cell lines. ChIP assays revealed that Kaiso binds directly to the miR-31 promoter in a methylation-dependent manner. Over-expression of miR-31 decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness of PC-3 cells, whereas cells transfected with anti-miR-31 restored proliferation, migration and invasiveness of sh-Kaiso PC-3 cells. In PCa patients, Kaiso high/miR-31 low expression correlated with worse overall survival relative to each marker individually. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that Kaiso promotes cell migration and invasiveness through regulation of miR-31 expression.


DNA methylation; Kaiso; miRNA; prostate cancer

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