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Can J Vet Res. 2016 Jan;80(1):49-59.

Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

Author information

1
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, 3200 Sicotte, St. Hyacinthe, Quebec J2S 7C6 (Boulianne, Arsenault, Archambault, Letellier); Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, 3200 Sicotte, St. Hyacinthe, Quebec J2S 7C6 (Daignault, Dutil).

Abstract

in English, French

An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry.

PMID:
26733732
PMCID:
PMC4686034
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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