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Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Feb 16;50(4):1990-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04396. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Using Domestic and Free-Ranging Arctic Canid Models for Environmental Molecular Toxicology Research.

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Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks , 900 Yukon Drive Room 194, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-6160, United States.
Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington , 4225 Roosevelt Way NE #100, Seattle, Washington 98105 United States.
Memphis Zoo , 2000 Prentiss Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38112, United States.
Environmental Fisheries and Sciences Division, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , 2725 Montlake Boulevard E. Seattle, Washington 98112-2013, United States.
Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Alaska , Fairbanks, 901 Koyukuk Dr, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-7750, United States.


The use of sentinel species for population and ecosystem health assessments has been advocated as part of a One Health perspective. The Arctic is experiencing rapid change, including climate and environmental shifts, as well as increased resource development, which will alter exposure of biota to environmental agents of disease. Arctic canid species have wide geographic ranges and feeding ecologies and are often exposed to high concentrations of both terrestrial and marine-based contaminants. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) has been used in biomedical research for a number of years and has been advocated as a sentinel for human health due to its proximity to humans and, in some instances, similar diet. Exploiting the potential of molecular tools for describing the toxicogenomics of Arctic canids is critical for their development as biomedical models as well as environmental sentinels. Here, we present three approaches analyzing toxicogenomics of Arctic contaminants in both domestic and free-ranging canids (Arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus). We describe a number of confounding variables that must be addressed when conducting toxicogenomics studies in canid and other mammalian models. The ability for canids to act as models for Arctic molecular toxicology research is unique and significant for advancing our understanding and expanding the tool box for assessing the changing landscape of environmental agents of disease in the Arctic.

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