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Nutrients. 2015 Dec 28;8(1). pii: E11. doi: 10.3390/nu8010011.

Clustering of Dietary Patterns, Lifestyles, and Overweight among Spanish Children and Adolescents in the ANIBES Study.

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FIDEC Foundation, University of the Basque Country, Gurtubay s/n, Bilbao 48010, Spain.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II, Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Centre of Biomedical Research, University of Granada, Campus de la Salud, Avda. del Conocimiento, Armilla, Granada 18100, Spain.
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Technical University of Madrid, C/Martín Fierro 7, Madrid 28040, Spain.
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, Madrid 28040, Spain.
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, C/Doctor Pasteur s/n, Trasera del Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 35016, Spain.
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Urb. Montepríncipe, Crta. Boadilla Km. 5.3, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid 28668, Spain.
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), C/General Álvarez de Castro 20. 1a pta, Madrid 28010, Spain.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, C/Irunlarrea 1, Pamplona 31008, Spain.


Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds.


adolescents; children; cluster analysis; dietary patterns; overweight; physical activity; sedentary behavior

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