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BMC Anesthesiol. 2016 Jan 4;16:1. doi: 10.1186/s12871-015-0163-0.

Regional anesthesia and lipid resuscitation for local anesthetic systemic toxicity in China: results of a survey by the orthopedic anesthesia group of the Chinese Society Of Anesthesiology.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49, North Garden Street, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.
Department of Anesthesiology, No 3 People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
Department of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang, China.
Department of Anesthesiology, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei, China.
Department of Anesthesiology, Sichuan Orthopedic Hospital, Sichuan, China.
Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital and Medical School of Chinese PLA, Beijing, China.
Department of Anesthesiology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.
Department of Critical Medicine and Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan Province, China.
Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49, North Garden Street, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.



Intravenous lipid emulsions have been introduced for the management of patients with Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity (LAST). These emulsions have been stated as a first-line treatment in the guidelines of several international anesthesia organizations. Nevertheless, the adoption of lipid rescue therapy by Chinese practitioners remains unknown. We, therefore, evaluated the current approaches to treat LAST and the use of lipid rescue therapy among anesthesiologists in China.


In September 2013, a 23-question survey on regional anesthesia practice and availability of lipid emulsions was sent by e-mail to directors or designated individuals at 41 academic anesthesiology departments listed by the orthopedic anesthesia group of the Chinese Society of Anesthesiology.


Responses were received from 36 of the 41 (88 %) anesthesiology departments. To simplify the analysis, responses were divided into two groups according to the annual percentage of patients who received regional anesthesia (RA) for orthopedic anesthesia: 14 departments (39%) with high-utilization (≥ 50%) and 22 departments (61%) low-utilization (<50%) of RA. Ropivacaine and bupivacaine were the common drugs used for RA, which were independent of RA utilization. Interestingly, ultrasound-guided techniques were much more frequently used in low-utilization institutions than in high-utilization institutions (P = 0.025). Lipid emulsion was readily available in 8 of the 36 (22%) responding institutions, with 7 of the other 28 (25%) institutions planning to stock lipid emulsion. No differences in lipid availability and storage plans were observed between high- and low-utilization institutions. Lipid resuscitation was performed in five of the eight departments that had lipid emulsion. Eleven patients were successfully resuscitated and one was not.


Lipid emulsion is not widely available in China to treat LAST resulted from RA for orthopedic patients. Efforts are required to promote lipid rescue therapy nationwide.


Chinese Clinical Trail Registry (Registration number # ChiCTR-EOR-15006960; Date of Retrospective Registration on August 23rd, 2015) .

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