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J Transl Med. 2016 Jan 5;14:1. doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0757-9.

A therapeutic cancer vaccine against GL261 murine glioma.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA. kindym@health.usf.edu.
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA. jinyu@health.usf.edu.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA. hongzhu@health.usf.edu.
4
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA. smithti@musc.edu.
5
Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA. gattonis@musc.edu.
6
Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, 29401, USA. gattonis@musc.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest of brain tumors. Standard treatment for GBM is surgery, followed by combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Current therapy prolongs survival but does not offer a cure. We report on a novel immunotherapy against GBM, tested in an animal model of C57BL/6 mice injected intra-cranially with a lethal dose of murine GL261 glioma cells.

METHODS:

Ten week-old C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized before injection of 2 × 10(4) GL261 cells in the right cerebral hemisphere and after 3 days half of the mice were administered a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of irradiated semi-allogeneic vaccine, while mock-vaccinated mice received a s.c. injection of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Tumor engraftment was monitored through bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Length of animal survival was measured by Kaplan-Meier graphs and statistics. At time of sacrifice brain tissue was processed for estimation of tumor size and immunohistochemical studies.

RESULTS:

Overall survival of vaccinated mice was significantly longer compared to mock-vaccinated mice. Five to ten percent of vaccinated mice survived more than 90 days following the engraftment of GL261 cells in the brain and appeared to be free of disease by BLI. Tumor volume in the brain of vaccinated mice was on average five to ten-fold smaller compared to mock-vaccinated mice. In vaccinated mice, conspicuous microglia infiltrates were observed in tumor tissue sections and activated microglia appeared to form a fence along the perimeter of the tumor cells. The results of these animal studies persuaded the Office of Orphan Products Development of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to grant Orphan Drug Designation for treatment of GBM with irradiated, semi-allogeneic vaccines.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our preclinical observations suggest that semi-allogeneic vaccines could be tested clinically on subjects with GBM, as an adjuvant to standard treatment.

PMID:
26727970
PMCID:
PMC4700644
DOI:
10.1186/s12967-015-0757-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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