Format

Send to

Choose Destination
MAGMA. 2016 Apr;29(2):125-53. doi: 10.1007/s10334-015-0507-2. Epub 2016 Jan 2.

Segmentation of the human spinal cord.

Author information

1
Neuroimaging Research Laboratory (NeuroPoly), Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.
2
Functional Neuroimaging Unit, CRIUGM, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.
3
Aix Marseille Université, IFSTTAR, LBA UMR_T 24, Marseille, France.
4
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CRMBM UMR 7339, Marseille, France.
5
APHM, Hôpital de la Timone, Pôle d'imagerie médicale, CEMEREM, Marseille, France.
6
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CRMBM UMR 7339, Marseille, France. virginie.callot@univ-amu.fr.
7
APHM, Hôpital de la Timone, Pôle d'imagerie médicale, CEMEREM, Marseille, France. virginie.callot@univ-amu.fr.

Abstract

Segmenting the spinal cord contour is a necessary step for quantifying spinal cord atrophy in various diseases. Delineating gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) is also useful for quantifying GM atrophy or for extracting multiparametric MRI metrics into specific WM tracts. Spinal cord segmentation in clinical research is not as developed as brain segmentation, however with the substantial improvement of MR sequences adapted to spinal cord MR investigations, the field of spinal cord MR segmentation has advanced greatly within the last decade. Segmentation techniques with variable accuracy and degree of complexity have been developed and reported in the literature. In this paper, we review some of the existing methods for cord and WM/GM segmentation, including intensity-based, surface-based, and image-based methods. We also provide recommendations for validating spinal cord segmentation techniques, as it is important to understand the intrinsic characteristics of the methods and to evaluate their performance and limitations. Lastly, we illustrate some applications in the healthy and pathological spinal cord. One conclusion of this review is that robust and automatic segmentation is clinically relevant, as it would allow for longitudinal and group studies free from user bias as well as reproducible multicentric studies in large populations, thereby helping to further our understanding of the spinal cord pathophysiology and to develop new criteria for early detection of subclinical evolution for prognosis prediction and for patient management. Another conclusion is that at the present time, no single method adequately segments the cord and its substructure in all the cases encountered (abnormal intensities, loss of contrast, deformation of the cord, etc.). A combination of different approaches is thus advised for future developments, along with the introduction of probabilistic shape models. Maturation of standardized frameworks, multiplatform availability, inclusion in large suite and data sharing would also ultimately benefit to the community.

KEYWORDS:

Gray matter; MRI; Segmentation; Spinal cord; White matter

PMID:
26724926
DOI:
10.1007/s10334-015-0507-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center