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Appetite. 2016 Mar 1;98:80-8. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.12.016. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms.

Author information

1
Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Faculty of Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5, Canada. Electronic address: thazell@wlu.ca.
2
Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Faculty of Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5, Canada. Electronic address: isla9020@mylaurier.ca.
3
Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Faculty of Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5, Canada. Electronic address: town9000@mylaurier.ca.
4
Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4, Canada. Electronic address: matt.schmale@uleth.ca.
5
Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4, Canada. Electronic address: jennifer.copeland@uleth.ca.

Abstract

The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life stages will be a powerful tool in developing more successful strategies for managing weight.

KEYWORDS:

Anorexigenic; Gut hormones; Hunger; Orexigenic; Satiety

PMID:
26721721
DOI:
10.1016/j.appet.2015.12.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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