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Cell Signal. 2016 Apr;28(4):256-71. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.12.011. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Principles for integrating reactive species into in vivo biological processes: Examples from exercise physiology.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Serres, Greece.
2
Division of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Abertay University, Dundee, UK.
3
Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, Trikala, Greece; Department of Health Sciences, School of Sciences, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
4
Department of Health Sciences, School of Sciences, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
5
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Serres, Greece. Electronic address: nikolaidis@auth.gr.

Abstract

The equivocal role of reactive species and redox signaling in exercise responses and adaptations is an example clearly showing the inadequacy of current redox biology research to shed light on fundamental biological processes in vivo. Part of the answer probably relies on the extreme complexity of the in vivo redox biology and the limitations of the currently applied methodological and experimental tools. We propose six fundamental principles that should be considered in future studies to mechanistically link reactive species production to exercise responses or adaptations: 1) identify and quantify the reactive species, 2) determine the potential signaling properties of the reactive species, 3) detect the sources of reactive species, 4) locate the domain modified and verify the (ir)reversibility of post-translational modifications, 5) establish causality between redox and physiological measurements, 6) use selective and targeted antioxidants. Fulfilling these principles requires an idealized human experimental setting, which is certainly a utopia. Thus, researchers should choose to satisfy those principles, which, based on scientific evidence, are most critical for their specific research question.

KEYWORDS:

Free radicals; Hydrogen peroxide; Oxidative stress; Physiology; Redox signaling

PMID:
26721187
DOI:
10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.12.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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