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Iran J Microbiol. 2015 Oct;7(5):226-46.

Dissemination of carbapenemases producing Gram negative bacteria in the Middle East.

Author information

1
Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
2
Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
3
Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
4
Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Abstract

The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria, that hydolyze most β-lactams, including carbapenems, are a major concern of public health system worldwide, particularly in the Middle East area. Since the plasmids harboring resistance genes could be spread across other bacterial populations, detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms has become more problematic. These organisms produce different types of enzymes including the most prevalent types including KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Carbapenemase producers are mostly identified among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. This study reviewed almost all papers, which conducted in the Middle East. In order to decrease the spread of resistance, the regional cooperation has been emphasized by the Middle East countries. The highest resistance, which is mediated by KPC has been observed in Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia and Jordan followed by NDM in Pakistan and OXA in Turkey and Pakistan. It is important to mention that the spread of these types have been reported sporadically in the other countries of this area. This review described the widespread carbapenemases in the Middle East area, which have been identified in an alarming rate.

KEYWORDS:

Acinetobacter baumannii; Carbapenemase; Enterobacteriaceae; KPC; Middle East countries; NDM; OXA; Pseudomonas aeruginosa

PMID:
26719779
PMCID:
PMC4695504

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