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Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016 Apr 15;310(8):F697-F704. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00321.2015. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

Protection of nitro-fatty acid against kidney diseases.

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Institute of Hypertension, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; and.
Institute of Hypertension, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; and
Department of Medicine, University of Utah and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.


Nitrated derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids are endogenously formed under oxidative and nitrative stress condition and are defined as electrophilic fatty acids containing a nitro group to a carbon-carbon double bond. Among the most studied nitro derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids are nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) and nitro-linoleic acid (LNO2). These products exhibit novel protective actions in a variety of rodent disease models. Diverse signaling events are responsible for effects of nitrated fatty acid, including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-dependent gene expression, suppressing NF-κB-induced inflammation, inhibiting oxidative stress, and increasing both endothelial nitric oxide synthase- and Nrf2-dependent gene regulation. Nitrated fatty acids have been emerging not only as a unique class of signaling molecules produced endogenously and but also as multipotent modulators of cell signaling pathways in cardiovascular and renal diseases. In this review, we discuss biochemical properties of nitrated fatty acid and its signaling pathways in the modulation of cellular events. A major focus is to review recent knowledge of nitrated fatty acid on the treatment of kidney diseases and its therapeutic potential for inflammation and metabolic disorders, with special emphasis on acute kidney injury and diabetic kidney disease.


Nrf2; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; nitrated fatty acid

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