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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016 Mar;73(6):1237-52. doi: 10.1007/s00018-015-2120-y. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

The impact of low-protein high-carbohydrate diets on aging and lifespan.

Author information

1
Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006, Australia. david.lecouteur@sydney.edu.au.
2
Ageing and Alzheimers Institute and ANZAC Research Institute, Concord Hospital, Concord, 2139, Australia. david.lecouteur@sydney.edu.au.
3
Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006, Australia.
4
Ageing and Alzheimers Institute and ANZAC Research Institute, Concord Hospital, Concord, 2139, Australia.
5
Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute ON Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.
6
School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
7
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006, Australia.
8
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006, Australia.
9
Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006, Australia. stephen.simpson@sydney.edu.au.
10
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006, Australia. stephen.simpson@sydney.edu.au.

Abstract

Most research on nutritional effects on aging has focussed on the impact of manipulating single dietary factors such as total calorie intake or each of the macronutrients individually. More recent studies using a nutritional geometric approach called the Geometric Framework have facilitated an understanding of how aging is influenced across a landscape of diets that vary orthogonally in macronutrient and total energy content. Such studies have been performed using ad libitum feeding regimes, thus taking into account compensatory feeding responses that are inevitable in a non-constrained environment. Geometric Framework studies on insects and mice have revealed that diets low in protein and high in carbohydrates generate longest lifespans in ad libitum-fed animals while low total energy intake (caloric restriction by dietary dilution) has minimal effect. These conclusions are supported indirectly by observational studies in humans and a heterogeneous group of other types of interventional studies in insects and rodents. Due to compensatory feeding for protein dilution, low-protein, high-carbohydrate diets are often associated with increased food intake and body fat, a phenomenon called protein leverage. This could potentially be mitigated by supplementing these diets with interventions that influence body weight through physical activity and ambient temperature.

KEYWORDS:

Ageing; Aging; CPC diet; Caloric restriction; Dietary carbohydrate; Dietary protein; Geometric Framework

PMID:
26718486
DOI:
10.1007/s00018-015-2120-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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