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Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016 Feb;22(2):345-54. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0000000000000638.

Dietary Patterns and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Europe: Results from the EPIC Study.

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1INSERM, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population, Health, UMR1018, Institut Gustave Roussy, Université Paris Sud, Villejuif, France; 2Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Bicêtre, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France; 3Department of Medicine, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; 4Department of Gastroenterology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Trust, Norwich, United Kingdom; 5Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; 6Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 7Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 8Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 9Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark; 10Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 11Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; 12Strangeways Research Laboratory, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; 13Division of Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 14Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Malmö, Malmö, Sweden; 15Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research, Umea University, Umea, Sweden; 16Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, GI unit, Umea University, Umea, Sweden; 17Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam, Germany; 18Division of Clinical Epidemiology, DKFZ-German Cancer Research Centre Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 19Molecular and Nutritional Epidemio



Specific nutrients or foods have been inconsistently associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) risks. Thus, we investigated associations between diet as a whole, as dietary patterns, and UC and CD risks.


Within the prospective EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer) study, we set up a nested matched case-control study among 366,351 participants with inflammatory bowel disease data, including 256 incident cases of UC and 117 of CD, and 4 matched controls per case. Dietary intake was recorded at baseline from validated food frequency questionnaires. Incidence rate ratios of developing UC and CD were calculated for quintiles of the Mediterranean diet score and a posteriori dietary patterns produced by factor analysis.


No dietary pattern was associated with either UC or CD risks. However, when excluding cases occurring within the first 2 years after dietary assessment, there was a positive association between a "high sugar and soft drinks" pattern and UC risk (incidence rate ratios for the fifth versus first quintile, 1.68 [1.00-2.82]; Ptrend = 0.02). When considering the foods most associated with the pattern, high consumers of sugar and soft drinks were at higher UC risk only if they had low vegetables intakes.


A diet imbalance with high consumption of sugar and soft drinks and low consumption of vegetables was associated with UC risk. Further studies are needed to investigate whether microbiota alterations or other mechanisms mediate this association.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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