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PPAR Res. 2015;2015:549691. doi: 10.1155/2015/549691. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

PPARγ and the Innate Immune System Mediate the Resolution of Inflammation.

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1
Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA ; Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
2
Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA ; Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA ; Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Abstract

The resolution of inflammation is an active and dynamic process, mediated in large part by the innate immune system. Resolution represents not only an increase in anti-inflammatory actions, but also a paradigm shift in immune cell function to restore homeostasis. PPARγ, a ligand activated transcription factor, has long been studied for its anti-inflammatory actions, but an emerging body of literature is investigating the role of PPARγ and its ligands (including thiazolidinediones, prostaglandins, and oleanolic acids) in all phases of resolution. PPARγ can shift production from pro- to anti-inflammatory mediators by neutrophils, platelets, and macrophages. PPARγ and its ligands further modulate platelet and neutrophil function, decreasing trafficking, promoting neutrophil apoptosis, and preventing platelet-leukocyte interactions. PPARγ alters macrophage trafficking, increases efferocytosis and phagocytosis, and promotes alternative M2 macrophage activation. There are also roles for this receptor in the adaptive immune response, particularly regarding B cells. These effects contribute towards the attenuation of multiple disease states, including COPD, colitis, Alzheimer's disease, and obesity in animal models. Finally, novel specialized proresolving mediators-eicosanoids with critical roles in resolution-may act through PPARγ modulation to promote resolution, providing another exciting area of therapeutic potential for this receptor.

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