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J Learn Disabil. 2017 Mar/Apr;50(2):115-127. doi: 10.1177/0022219415617163. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Impact of Intensive Summer Reading Intervention for Children With Reading Disabilities and Difficulties in Early Elementary School.

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1 McGovern Institute for Brain Research and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA.
2 MGH Institute of Health Professions, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Boston, MA, USA.
3 Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA, USA.


Efficacy of an intensive reading intervention implemented during the nonacademic summer was evaluated in children with reading disabilities or difficulties (RD). Students (ages 6-9) were randomly assigned to receive Lindamood-Bell's Seeing Stars program ( n = 23) as an intervention or to a waiting-list control group ( n = 24). Analysis of pre- and posttesting revealed significant interactions in favor of the intervention group for untimed word and pseudoword reading, timed pseudoword reading, oral reading fluency, and symbol imagery. The interactions mostly reflected (a) significant declines in the nonintervention group from pre- to posttesting, and (2) no decline in the intervention group. The current study offers direct evidence for widening differences in reading abilities between students with RD who do and do not receive intensive summer reading instruction. Intervention implications for RD children are discussed, especially in relation to the relevance of summer intervention to prevent further decline in struggling early readers.


dyslexia; early identification/intervention; elementary; treatment

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