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Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016 Feb 1;292:65-74. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2015.12.010. Epub 2015 Dec 19.

The ovarian DNA damage repair response is induced prior to phosphoramide mustard-induced follicle depletion, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated inhibition prevents PM-induced follicle depletion.

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Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. Electronic address:


Phosphoramide mustard (PM) is an ovotoxic metabolite of cyclophosphamide and destroys primordial and primary follicles potentially by DNA damage induction. The temporal pattern by which PM induces DNA damage and initiation of the ovarian response to DNA damage has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated DNA damage initiation, the DNA repair response, as well as induction of follicular demise using a neonatal rat ovarian culture system. Additionally, to delineate specific mechanisms involved in the ovarian response to PM exposure, utility was made of PKC delta (PKCδ) deficient mice as well as an ATM inhibitor (KU 55933; AI). Fisher 344 PND4 rat ovaries were cultured for 12, 24, 48 or 96h in medium containing DMSO ±60μM PM or KU 55933 (48h; 10nM). PM-induced activation of DNA damage repair genes was observed as early as 12h post-exposure. ATM, PARP1, E2F7, P73 and CASP3 abundance were increased but RAD51 and BCL2 protein decreased after 96h of PM exposure. PKCδ deficiency reduced numbers of all follicular stages, but did not have an additive impact on PM-induced ovotoxicity. ATM inhibition protected all follicle stages from PM-induced depletion. In conclusion, the ovarian DNA damage repair response is active post-PM exposure, supporting that DNA damage contributes to PM-induced ovotoxicity.


ATM inhibitor; Apoptosis; DNA repair; Ovary; PKC delta; PM

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